Ritter, Kelly. "Before Mina Shaughnessy: Basic Writing at Yale, 1920-1960." CCC 60.1 (2008): 12-45.
This article examines Yale's "Awkward Squad" of basic writers between 1920 and 1960. Using archival materials that illustrate the socioeconomic conditions of this early, "pre-Shaughnessy" site of remedial writing instruction, I argue for a re-definition of basic in composition studies using local, institutional values rather than generic standards of correctness applied uniformly to all colleges and universities.