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Barry M. Kroll. Arguing with Adversaries: Aikido, Rhetoric, and the Art of Peace.

Kroll, Barry M. "Arguing with Adversaries: Aikido, Rhetoric, and the Art of Peace." CCC 59.3 (2008): 451-472.


The Japanese martial art of aikido affords a framework for understanding argument as harmonization rather than confrontation. Two movements, circling away (tenkan) and entering in (irimi), suggest tactics for arguing with adversaries. The ethical imperative of aikido involves protecting one's adversary from harm, using the least force necessary, and, when possible, transforming aggression into cooperation.

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