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Susan Kates. Literacy, Voting Rights, and the Citizenship Schools in the South, 1957-70.

Kates, Susan. "Literacy, Voting Rights, and the Citizenship Schools in the South, 1957-70." CCC 57.3 (2006): 479-502.


This essay examines the history of a massive literacy campaign called the Citizenship School Program that began as a response to the racist literacy tests that disenfranchised countless African American voters throughout the Southern United States between 1945 and 1965. The Citizenship Schools prepared thousands of African Americans to pass the literacy test by using materials that critiqued white supremacism and emphasized the twentieth-century struggle for civil rights.

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